Aia kahi polokalamu lapaʻau i kekahi mea i manaʻo ʻia e hoʻohana ʻia no nā kumu olakino. Pēlā e hoʻokaʻawale ai i kahi mea olakino mai kahi kaila i kēlā me kēia lā. Loaʻa nā pono olakino i nā mea maʻi e ke kōkua ʻana i nā mea mālama olakino āpau e hoʻomaʻamaʻa a mālama i nā mea maʻi a kōkua i nā mea maʻi e lanakila i ka maʻi a me ka maʻi paha, hoʻomaikaʻi i ko lākou ola. He kuleana nui nā mōliaola i ka wā e hoʻohana ai i kahi polokalamu no nā mea lapaʻau a no laila e pono ke hōʻoia ʻia nā mea olakino e palekana a kūpono me ka hōʻoia kūpono ma mua o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā aupuni i ke kūʻai aku ʻana i ka mākaʻi ma ko lākou ʻāina. Ma ke ʻano he kānāwai maʻamau, e like me ka pilikia pili o ka polokalamu e hoʻonui i ka nui o ka hoʻāʻo e hoʻokū i ka palekana a ʻoi aku ka piʻi. Eia kekahi, ʻoiai e pili ana i ka hopena pili e hoʻonui pono i ka mea maʻi i hoʻonui ʻia hoʻi.

Ka ʻike ʻana i nā mea e manaʻo ʻia he lāʻau lapaʻau e nā lā maʻamau o kēia wā a hiki i c. 7000 BC ma Baluchistan kahi a nā Neolithic dentist i hoʻohana ai i nā ʻōniu poni a me nā ʻūlū. [1] Ke hōʻike nei nō hoʻi i ka noiʻi ʻana i nā palapala hulina a me nā palapala lāʻau lapaʻau Roma he nui nā ʻano lāʻau lapaʻau i hoʻohana ākea ʻia i ka wā o Roma kahiko. [2] Ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa ʻaʻole ia a hiki i ke Kānāwai Pekelala, ʻAi Kākoʻo, a me ka Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) i ka makahiki 1938 i hoʻoponopono ʻia ai nā mea lapaʻau. Ma hope ma 1976, ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka Lapaʻau Mea Lapaʻau i ke Kānāwai FD & C i ka rula a me ka nānā ʻana o nā mea olakino e like me kā mākou e ʻike nei i kēia lā i United States. [3] Ua mālama ʻia ka rula o nā mea olakino ma ʻEulopa e like me kā mākou e ʻike nei i kēia mau makahiki i ka makahiki 1993 e ka mea i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka Medical Device Directive (MDD). Ma Mei 26, 2017 ka Medical Device Regulation (MDR) i pani i ka MDD.

Hoʻololi nā mea olakino i nā mea i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hōʻike no ka hoʻohana ʻana. Aia nā hoʻohālikelike mai nā polokalamu maʻalahi, haʻahaʻa e like me ka lehelehe waha, nā thermometer medikal, nā pale lima, a me nā wahi hoʻi i nā mea paʻakikī loa. ʻO kekahi ʻōlelo hoʻohālike o nā pahuhopu kiʻekiʻe ʻo ia ka poʻe me ka polokalamu Embedded e like me ka pacemaker, a he kōkua i ke ʻano o ke ʻano loiloi, implants, a me nā prostheses. Hana ʻia nā mea e like me ka housings no nā cochlear implants e hana ʻia ma o nā kaʻina hana a me nā kaʻina wili. ʻO ka hoʻolālā o nā lāʻau lapaʻau e hoʻokumu i kahi mahele nui o ka pānaehana biomedical.

Ua hōʻea ke kumukūʻai olakino olakino ma ke ʻano he US $ 209 biliona ma 2006 [4] a ua manaʻo ʻia he ma waena o $ 220 a me US $ 250 biliona ma 2013. [5] Ka hoʻokō ʻana o ka United States ~ 40% o ka mākeke honua i ukali e ʻEulopa (25%), Iapana (15%), a me ke koena o ka honua (20%). ʻOiai ʻokoʻa ka nui o ka ʻāpana o ʻEulopa, ʻo ka ʻāpana ʻo Iapana ka lua o ka mākeke ʻāina. ʻO nā māka kūʻai nui loa ma ʻEulopa (ma ke ʻano o ka nui o nā māhele mākeke) no Kelemānia, Italia, Farani a me ka United Kingdom. ʻO ke koena o ka honua ka loko o nā wahi like (ma kekahi hana pono) Australia, Canada, China, India, a me Iran. E kūkākūkā kēia ʻatikala i nā mea e pono ai kahi lāʻau olakino ma kēia mau ʻāina a ma kahi o ka ʻatikala e kūkākūkā ʻia kēia mau wahi ma ka ʻano o kā lākou ʻāpana ʻāina.

Hōʻike 'ia nā mea a pau 12 hualoaʻa

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